The examination of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reveals a discernible uptrend since the dawn of the 21st century, a phenomenon not observed in the preceding three decades. This trend is predominantly attributed to the escalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions emanating from burgeoning economies. Consequently, there has been a substantial augmentation in the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, exacerbating the natural greenhouse effect. This intensification has deleterious implications for terrestrial life. Notwithstanding the international accords aimed at mitigating climate change, CO2 emissions — the principal agent of global warming — continue to ascend on a global scale. The total GHG emissions for the year 2018 were quantified at 55.6 giga-tons of CO2 equivalent. It is noteworthy that current GHG emissions have surged by approximately 57% relative to 1990 levels and 43% in comparison to those of 2000.

The Kyoto Protocol, established in 1997, identifies seven greenhouse gases as significant contributors to global warming. These gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). Among these, CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels constitute the largest segment of global GHG emissions, accounting for approximately 72%. This is followed by methane (19%), nitrous oxide (6%), and fluorinated gases (3%). The primary sources of CO2 emissions, which amount to 89% of the global total, are attributed to the combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas, with respective contributions of 39%, 31%, and 18%. In the case of methane emissions, significant sources include agriculture, fossil fuel production, and waste/wastewater management. Notably, the production and transmission of fossil fuels represent a third of global methane emissions

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